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Both logs and core data can be used in defining the mapped interval. Different completion and stimulation procedures may yield different ultimate recoveries from individual wells. The method of estimation is called deterministic [our emphasis] if a single best estimate of reserves is made based on known geological, engineering, and economic data. SEC definitions  specify that proved reserves are to be handbpok consistent with “existing economic and operating conditions; i.
Such a review might reveal one or more causes e. The performance of wells in heavy oil reservoirs is erratic, however, and is influenced by varying production practices, varying volumes of sand production, and frequent downtime, among other factors, so that analogy estimates are subject to considerable uncertainty.
Good engineering practice might require overriding the software-generated hyperbolic projection with an exponential projection. N p can be extrapolated to a local average ” f o cutoff,” but this cutoff might be too low for wells coxl low productivity.
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Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be commercially recoverable, from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions, operating methods, and government regulations.
J Can Pet Technol 5 4: Seismic information, especially when “calibrated” through comparison to well log information, is especially important when well-control information is sparse and when faulting has not been defined through fault cuts recognized in wellbores.
Constructing a 3P model may be best initially, with the ability to modify it to assist in estimating proved or proved plus probable reserves. When such analysis includes a good-quality history match, future production forecasts might be considered proved reserves, depending on the constraints imposed on the forecast; however, if computer simulation is used to forecast production, considering such forecasts to be proved reserves is conjectural without a history match.
J Pet Technol 37 7: Such reservoirs typically are identified as “dual-porosity” systems. Be cautious in relying on such pressure information in any circumstance wherein the reservoir is not allowed to approach an equilibrium pressure.
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See Cronquist  for a summary of many of these other definitions. A critical review of the more than 50 years of literature        makes apparent that the industry has yet to develop a general treatment of coning that hsndbook the influences of gas cap, aquifer influx, and other relevant parameters.
Jul 3, Oddometer: An expanding drainage radius and initially steep, hyperbolic declines in production rate characterize transient flow from wells. The adsorbed gas quantity results from laboratory measurements of the adsorbed gas in a unit of dry, ash-free coal and other coal-quality factors.
In the absence of data on fluid contacts, the lowest known occurrence of hydrocarbons controls the proved limit unless otherwise indicated by definitive geological, engineering, or performance data. ChasehDec 26, Accordingly, check such estimates against simple models, as discussed by Richardson and Blackwell,  and against actual performance in analogous reservoirs. Analyzing each well in a common reservoir often is appropriate for estimating reserves, particularly for a fully developed reservoir being produced under the control of a single operator; however, when individual wells are not analyzed, be aware of the potential for interwell interference to affect individual well-drainage patterns.
There might be a need to acquire missing data or to contact the operator for additional information. Before using this technique, however, determine whether per-well reserves are truly random, are not influenced by prior drainage, and are unrelated to a geologic handbookk operating parameter.
Sooo…what did Santa Bring Your GS?
Oct 25, Oddometer: Remember, however, that all calculations of reserves must be considered estimatesand are accurate to no more than two significant figures. Also, virtually all natural gas then was sold through long-term contracts with a defined pricing structure. These projections may be inserted into the evaluation module, together with hansbook, costs, taxes, ownership, and other pertinent data, to calculate the economic limit and the reserves bwc oil, gas, and condensate, and to generate a cash flow projection.
As in traditional reserves estimation, volumetric reserves estimates should be handboook against performance-driven reserves estimates. The lost gas volume is estimated as a function of the coal type and depth of burial and other factors. Some of these concerns are discussed further in the Pitfalls section of this chapter.
A nice side benefit is that it’s not as curved as the factory screen, so I could move my Zumo for better visibility of the other gauges. The SPE and the WPC continue to work together to improve these definitions in light of several unresolved ambiguities.