Some enterococci of food origin produce bacteriocins that exert anti-Listeria activity. Enterococci are used as probiotics to improve the microbial balance of the. Enterococci can cause food intoxication through production of biogenic amines and can be a reservoir for .. Enterococci at the crossroads of food safety. C. M. A. P. Franz, W. H. Holzapfel and M. E. Stiles, “Enterococci at the Crossroads of Food Safety” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 47, No.

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Molecular analysis of Tn in Enterococcus faecium isolated from animals and humans. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation.

Isolation and molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Malaysia. The overall data on antibiotic resistance within food-associated enterococci open the question of their entering the food chain.

Strains with high-level resistance to kanamycin and gentamicin were recently isolated from French raw milk cheeses and hospitalised patients [45].

Resistance is acquired by gene transfer systems, such as conjugative or nonconjugative plasmids or transposons. Enterococci isolated from dairy products: Lactic acid Endocarditis Vancomycin Bacteremia Urinary tract. Because of their high heat tolerance and survival under adverse environmental conditions, enterococci can colonise diverse niches and may then serve as indicators of the sanitary quality of food.

VRE have been found in waste water samples from sewage treatment plants, livestock faeces, uncooked chicken samples, manure samples from pig and poultry farms [ 123662 ]. The spread of resistance, which enters the human enterococcal flora via the food chain, and the transfer of this trait to pathogenic species i.

Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species from meat and fermented meat products isolated by a PCR-based rapid screening method.


High levels of biogenic amines in many fermented foods, such as fermented sausages, cheeses, wines, beers, olives and fish products, involved in food intoxication may be a clinical concern. The vanA type glycopeptide resistance, which confers coupled resistance to both vancomycin and teicoplanin, seems the most frequent vancomycin-resistant phenotype among food-associated VRE.

Enterococci from foods | FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Oxford Academic

In Europe the predominant types are Italian salami and German raw sausage with numerous national and regional variants. Phenotypic identification of the genus Enterococcus and differentiation of phylogenetically distinct enterococcal species and species groups. The sex pheromone system of Enterococcus faecalis — more than just a plasmid-collection mechanism. Epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in the community and the relevance of farm animals to human infection.

To prove such a link is beset with many difficulties: The presence of enterococci in pasteurised cheeses is generally due to recontamination after the heat treatment and to their heat resistance.

Enterococci at the crossroads of food safety?

Multiple drug resistant enterococci: In the past, it has been suggested that the application of enterococci in foods could proceed once pathogenic strains and non-pathogenic strains are defined on the basis of careful selection and case-by-case studies.

To the contrary, many authors suggest that certain strains of zt in some cheeses may be highly desirable on the basis of their positive contribution to flavour development during the cheese ripening.

Enterococci have traditionally been regarded as low-grade pathogens. With the emergence of glycopeptide resistance in enterococci especially E.

Enterococci at the crossroads of food safety? [1999]

Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in pork and poultry products from a cattle-rearing area of France. Transfer of Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium to the genus Enterococcus nom. Microbial agents involved in biogenic amine production in foods may belong to either starter or contaminating microflora.


The problem with the taxonomy of enterococci is generally that they are a heterogeneous group of Gram-positive cocci sharing many characteristics with the genera Streptococcus and Lactococcus.

If transmission with enterococci from unrecognised community sources can be identified and controlled, an increase in the incidence of colonisation and infection among hospitalised patients could be prevented. The increasing resistance of enterococci to antibiotics and the presence of active mechanisms of gene transfer are exacerbating the increasing findings of these bacteria as nosocomial opportunists. The molecular biology of fruity and floral aromas in beer and other alcoholic beverages.

Continuing high prevalence of vanA-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci on Norvegian poultry farms three years after avoparcin was banned. In addition, the notable resistance of enterococci to adverse environmental conditions explains their ability to colonise different ecological niches and their spreading within the food chain through contaminated animals and foods.

Clearly, there is no consensus on the acceptance of their presence in foodstuffs and their role as primary pathogens is still a question mark. Topics Discussed in This Paper. After a period of fermentation to biologically stabilise the product, processed meats are typically salted or smoked, and for the most part eaten raw [34].

Transconjugation in which starter enterococci acquire virulence determinants from medical enterococci was recently demonstrated crsosroads. The finding of non human VRE suggests the presence of community and animal reservoirs for these bacteria, where they have been selected through the use of avoparcin as a feed additive. Antibiotic-resistant strains of Enterococcus isolated from Swedish and Danish retailed chicken and pork.