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Mills and William H. Regardless of figurine function, we infer that these actions demonstrate the importance of viewing figurines as animated objects, imbued with the ability to significantly change or alter social relationships through ritual performance.

Figurine Embodiment and Household Ritual in an Early Mixtec Village

Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Dep. Among females, a variety of differing hairstyles were noted, which may have served to communicate social information about status see Marcuspp. Nuttall Zelia Codex Nuttall: As part of our interpretive program, we outline strong cultural continuities of Mixtec artifact embodiment and corporeal termination practice through time and among contemporary populations.

Closely associated with the human remains were two nearly intact vessels belonging to the Cruz C phase, including an Atoyac Yellow-White vessel, a well-crafted greenstone earspool, and several figurine fragments discussed below.

This is not the case at Tayata, as fires set to bodies and accompanying offerings was not hot enough to reduce bones to ash.

Click here to sign up. Nearby, a cranium fragment was recovered from the floor near the altar in association with a lone human femur. Balkansky The Mixtecs of Oaxaca: Como es mencionado por Resta: In the Valley of Oaxaca, a decrease in household figurine use is attributed to an increasing reliance on full-time priests to utrea ritual ceremonies, particularly in the late Middle Formative Marcusp. The Journal of the Learning Sciences 10 4 Photo by Liz Farmer.


The depositional contexts of this feature were complex, and the burial cut itself showed evidence for catzlogo mixing of stratigraphic levels.

Embodiment practices at Tayata reveal one important distinction in the end-of-life cycle events: We identified the Tayata figurines based on secondary sexual characteristics because primary sexual characteristics were generally absent.

Further, Joycep. Such data suggest that the dispersal or scattering of figurines may have occurred over an area even wider than the house or specific midden. All of these dog figurines have exaggerated goggle eyes, and one has an extended tongue. The skull was found approximately 30 cm from a well-crafted stone lined pit and there was no additional evidence of faunal material at the same level, suggesting it may have been part of a ritual event and not simply household refuse.

If an object is involved relationally with other persons or embodied objects, it can be viewed archaeologically through the special treatment of objects including offerings, contextual associations and architectural contexts Bray ; Groleau This interment was unique as it contained a human skull where the occipital bone was intentionally removed from the back of the skull and placed over the face prior to burial.

The final goal was that participants would experience, through a practical experience, the constructionist learning environment and the tools available, so that they could, in the future, extrapolate the knowledge they constructed in their own disciplines and classes.

A also shows evidence of burning across much of the face and of the upper right leg, similar to the excavated human and dog cremations. Later burials dating to the Classic period show some signs of continuity in the disarticulation or removal of skeletal elements, but also include full inhumations typical of Mixteca pit burials.

Within these middens, there were three human figurines, three dog figurines and one bird figurine.

Harvey Graham Animism: Another potential interpretation is that these figurines were unintentionally included in the burial fill.


This ritual can take place in graveyards, adding to the metaphorical notion of death associated with the destruction of the candle by fire ibid. Deecargar WalshThomas J. PluckhahnJohn F. Figurine A was covered with eroded red slip and burned along the left side of the body. The general confinement of Tayata figurines to domestic spaces is consistent descargr other figurine assemblages in the Oaxaca region Marcus ; Flannery and Marcusp.

Our analysis distinguished between two types of burn patterns on figurines: Although rare, such linkages between ceramic figurines and actual bodies are found elsewhere in the Formative period Mixteca Alta.


Thus, it is plausible that the omission of skulls was an intentional dedcargar performed for ritual purposes given the contexts of mortuary treatment at Tayata. BalkanskyLaura R. Kathryn Josserand, Marcus C. Tayata Excavations and the Formative Period Mixtec. This process involved the deactivation of figurines that parallels ritual behavior associated with burials and ritual caching at Tayata.

In addition, a small v-shaped cutmark was found on one of the ribs, which may have occurred post-mortem ibid. Thus, we feel that the current sample is appropriate to help interpret general social processes at the village level, despite its limits for conducting statistical procedures. Latham and Nathan J. Archaeologically, the intentional breakage of artifacts to mark life-cycle events is well documented across Mesoamerica from the Formative period to Spanish contact.

This applies to both human and non-human figurines whose treatment does not appear to differ catlaogo these two categories. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link.