Request PDF on ResearchGate | Dermatofitos en perros de Cali, Colombia | En Cali se realizó un estudio en perros con el fin de determinar la frecuencia de. a una de diferentes variedades de hongos tipo moho llamados dermatofitos. Los perros y los gatos, en especial los cachorros y los gatitos. Es una infeccion fungica del tallo piloso y el estracto corneo, causada por hongos queratofilicos. Es comun en perros y gatos. TRANSMISION.
|Published (Last):||24 November 2012|
|PDF File Size:||10.4 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||11.36 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitos. Dermatofitosks activity of neem Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae extracts against dermatophytes. In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree Azadirachta indica A.
Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, ofwidely known antifungal activity.
The dermatofitosiss Terbinafine served as a positive control.
The MIC of positive control Terbinafine ranged between 0. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible peerros of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity.
The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis. HPLC, neem, microbial sensitivity tests, minimum inhibitory concentration, terpenoids. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum.
The research about neem has been focused not only on its known antifeedant activity on insects, but also on its antifungal potential Govindachari et al. Medical importance fungi, such as dermatophytes, are one of the most widespread causes of dermatology consultations. The genus Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton are an important source of dermatophytic infections in several parts of the body.
In a study carried out with patients in Pernambuco state, Brazil, it was found that T. The authors reported an increase in the prevalence of T. Dermatophytes can also be present in pets, as a study in Cali, Colombia revealed.
The main fungus isolate were Microsporum gypseum, followed by M. There is an increasingly interest on the isolation of natural compounds with antifungal activity, from which terpenoids have revealed to produce either fungistatic or fungicidal power on several pathogenic fungi.
To this respect, Ospina et al. Neem raw organic extracts and their components also inhibit the growth of several pathogenic fungi. Using a Sabouraud Dextrose broth dilution method, Natarajan et al. Nevertheless, they noticed that the separated compounds, as azadiradione, nimbin and salanin, did not exhibit appreciable activity by itself, but the activity was recovered when mixed together again.
Other authors have observed that pure azadirachtin was not highly effective as a fungicidal agent, when compared to azadirachtin rich raw neem seed extracts Kavitha et al. The previous studies suggest that there is a synergistic or additive effect of terpenoids in the extracts from neem. Other authors support this hypothesis by evaluating different plant extracts or fractions obtained through chromatographic methods.
Furthermore, they observed a loss of activity when separating the petroleum ether extract by thin layer chromatography, and determining the antifungal activity of each fraction. Similarly to the prior, several flavonoids present in methanol extracts from Baccharis spp. Asteraceae showed synergistic or additive effects when combined with the commercial antimycotic Terbinafine, enhancing the growth inhibition of T.
Ado Eqmina spray caballos perros y gatos. Dermatofitosis y dermatitis. Calier
The neem tree is particularly rich in triterpenoids. It has been estimated that over of this structurally related compounds have been isolated from various parts of the neem tree Johnson et al. The limonoids, also called tetranortriterpenoids, are a group ofheterocyclic compounds highly oxygenated with alkoxy and hydroxyl groups, from which azadirachtin is the most known.
Other similar compounds are salannin, nimbin, 3-desacetylsalannin and 6-desacetylnimbin Jarvis et al. These triterpenoids are often extracted by grinding the seed kernels and dermatofitoais with hexane and alcohol to separate the oil from the terpenoids. The action mechanism of plant extracts on dermatophytes are thought to be cell wall-related, since it has been observed that ether extracts of Inula viscosa Asteraceae inhibits chitin synthesis in dermatophytes and Dermqtofitosis albicans Maoz et al.
It was reported that aqueous neem leaves extracts increase superficial hydrophobicity on cells of Candida albicans Polaquini et al. Neem seed methanolic extracts and pure azadirachtin were found to be inhibitive to ergosterol biosynthesis of Aspergillus parasiticus; this effect might be attributed to inhibition of enzyme swhich is involved in the biosynthetic pathway of ergosterol Kavitha et al. This study was planned to determine the antifungal activity of neem leaves and seed oil methanolic extracts, against 14 clinical isolated dermatophytes, by using a reference microdilution method.
The possible relation of their antifungal activity with their chemical profile by HPLC of both extracts was pdrros analysed. The neem leaves extract was prepared according to Suresh et al.
The methanol phase was concentrated until give a residue, and kept sealed in darkness. Neem seed oil, provided by Biotropical S. The hexane phase was discarded, whereas methanol phase was concentrated in rotary evaporator until give a residue, and kept sealed in darkness.
The gradient program was started with a mobile phase flux of 1. It was registered at a wave length of nm during 25 minutes Orozco-Sanchez et al. The resultant HPLC profiles were also compared with that of a methanol extract from neem cultured cell suspensions Ospina et al. The classification was done by microscopic and macroscopic analysis of the colonies, according to criteria from Kane et al.
The dermatophytes isolates were cultured repeatedly in Sabouraud-dextrose-agar medium in order to obtain pure colonies: Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes: To prepare the conidial suspension inoculum, the isolates of T. The resultant conidial suspension was adjusted to 1. DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide 1: Each extract was evaluated in a concentration range from pwrros.
Only three isolates of T. Each bioassay was carried out three times with each extract and dermatophytes isolate. Response variables mean inhibition percentage were analyzed by SAS software Statistical Analysis System with Duncan’s multiple range test, in a completely randomized design, three replicates per treatment each neem extract and their respective controls.
[Tinea capitis by Microsporum gypseum, an infrequent species].
The antifungal activity assays showed different levels of growth inhibition between the 14 isolates of dermatophytes tested with the neem extracts. Table 1 shows significant differences between the leaves and seed oil extracts, in regard to their average fungal growth inhibition.
This value was calculated as a mean percentage among all concentrations above and below the MIC of each extract. Therefore, it reflects the dimension of the activity range of each extract. Data on table 1 do not consider information from E. The figure 1 shows actually how the growth ofthe fungi is inhibited by neem extracts.
When comparing each well, the fungal growth is evinced by a white turbidity or little spots, whereas in the translucent wells there is no fungal growth. Note that solvent control MeOH: However, positive control Terbinafine remains as the most effective antifungal compound, as their MICs 0.
In the chromatographic profile ofthe neem seed oil and leaves extracts, it was observed more than 25 peaks, which were more defined particularly between minutes Fig. These peaks might represent at least 25 different terpenoids. Leaves extract showed higher concentration around 15 minutes, nearly fourfold of that of the seed oil extract.
However, this two extracts had higher peaks concentration than the culture cell extract, which could explain the differences in their antifungal activity see discussion below.
The peaks exhibited by neem seed oil, leaves and cell suspensions extracts above 14 minutes are less polar compounds than azadirachtin, whose retention time is five minutes. Several authors have established the potential of neem dsrmatofitosis and their components as antifungal agents.
This same author Govindachari et drrmatofitosis. They attributed this effect to the presence in these fractions of the compound undecynol. Similarly, Song dermatofitosjs al. It could be inferred that the terpenoids present in this range of retention time are related to the antifungal activity of each extract. Although neem seeds kernels are more widely used to obtain terpenoids from organic extracts, some reports show that the leaves can also yield this kind of compounds.
Then, by evaluating in vivo disease severity of Puccinia arachidis on Arachis hipogaea Fabaceae leaflets, they observed that the pustule dermahofitosis was lower when applying different concentrations of two isolated peaks and a mixture of six of them. Isomeldenin, nimonol and the methanol fraction were effective to a lesser extent in controlling the disease severity than the other dermatofitsois.
In this work, it was found that leaves methanolic perro had higher antifungal activity than seed oil extract. As their HPLC profile reveals, neem extracts have compounds mainly present in retention time between 14 minutes; hence, regarding to their variable concentration in each of them, they are thought to be responsible of the different antifungal activity.
In the case of leaves extract, its high concentration of terpenoids at this retention times is derkatofitosis with its lower MICs. It is possible that the seed oil extract ought its lower activity to a lower content of terpenoids in these retention times, which would be terpenoids with low polarity.
These peaks are complex mixtures of compounds, as other authors have suggested Suresh et al. The evidence pointed out that these peaks have by themselves antifungal activity, which is lost when separated compounds, as azadiradione, nimbin and salanin, are evaluated. The activity was recovered when mixed together again. The previous results indicated that dermatofitosid is a synergistic or additive effect of terpenoids in the methanolic extract from neem seed oil.
The findings of Ospina et al. Although most of the previous works mention various microbial sensibility testings in vitro, perrros of the strengths of this study was to apply the reference broth microdilution method MA2 for filamentous fungi and dermatophytes, in order to determine the antifungal activity ofneem extracts. This method is more suitable than others for evaluate the susceptibility of dermatophytes to antifungal compounds, since it is widely recommended to establish standard MICs of common antimycotics as terbinafine, fluconazole, voriconazol, or even others.
Both the neem leaves and seed oil extracts were capable of inhibit the growth of T. The extract from neem leaves had the highest antifungal activity of both, perhaps due to a higher concentration of terpenoids with low polarity, as its HPLC profi le revealed; the relation of HPLC profi les of each extract with their antifungal activity were consistent with previous results of these and other authors.
Although MICs ofneem extracts were several magnitudes above those of the positive control Terbinafine, it is to consider that antagonistic effects could occurred between the different terpenoids present in them, as other authors have suggested.
It is necessary to conduct further studies with pure isolated terpenoids of neem leaves and seed oil extracts employing the same bioassays methodology of this work. The authors render thanks the sponsoring of the Research Direction of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia Campus Medellin, and the logistic support offered by the personal of the Medical Mycology Laboratory of the Medicine Faculty -Universidad de Antioquia.
Dermatofitos en Perros de Cali, Colombia. Antifungal Activity of Some Tetranortriterpenoids. Laboratory Handbook of Dermatophytes: